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It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons ever used in warfare, the first being Little Boyand its detonation marked the third nuclear explosion in history. The name Fat Man refers to the early design of the bomb because it had a wide, round shape; it was also known as the Mark III. Fat man naked in bed Man was an implosion-type nuclear weapon with a solid plutonium core. The first of that type to be detonated was the Gadget in the Trinity nuclear Fat man naked in bed less than a month earlier on 16 July at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range in New Mexico.

Two more were detonated during the Operation Crossroads nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll inand some were produced between andwhen it was Fat man naked in bed by the Mark 4 nuclear bomb. The Fat Man was retired in Robert Oppenheimer held conferences in Fat man naked in bed in Juneprior to the Army taking over wartime atomic research, and in Berkeley, California, in July, at which various engineers and physicists discussed nuclear bomb design issues.

They chose a gun-type design in which two sub-critical masses would be brought together by firing a "bullet" into a "target". Tolman suggested an implosion-type nuclear weaponbut the idea attracted scant consideration. The feasibility of a plutonium bomb was questioned in Wallace Akersthe director of the British " Tube Alloys " project, told James Bryant Conant on 14 November that James Chadwick had "concluded that plutonium might not be a practical fissionable material for weapons because of impurities.

The committee concluded that any problems could be overcome simply by requiring higher purity. Oppenheimer reviewed his options in early and gave priority to the gun-type weapon, [2] but he created the E-5 Group at the Los Alamos Laboratory under Seth Neddermeyer to investigate implosion as a hedge against the threat of pre-detonation.

Implosion-type bombs were determined to be significantly more efficient in terms of explosive yield per unit mass of fissile material in the bomb, because compressed fissile materials react more rapidly and therefore more completely. Nonetheless, it was decided that the plutonium gun would receive the bulk of the research effort, since it was the project with the least amount of uncertainty involved.

It was assumed that the uranium gun-type bomb could be easily adapted from it. The gun-type and implosion-type designs were codenamed " Thin Man " and "Fat Man" respectively. These code names were created by Robert Serbera former student of Oppenheimer's who worked on the Manhattan Project. He chose them based on their design shapes; the Thin Man was a very long device, and the name came from the Dashiell Hammett detective novel The Thin Man and series of movies.

Little Boy came last as a variation of Thin Man. Neddermeyer discarded Serber and Tolman's initial concept of implosion as assembling a series of pieces in favor of one in which a hollow sphere was imploded by an explosive shell. Thompson was brought in as a consultant, and discussed the problem with Neddermeyer in June Thompson was skeptical that an implosion could be made sufficiently symmetric.

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But Neddermeyer's efforts in July and August at imploding tubes to produce cylinders tended to produce objects that resembled rocks. Neddermeyer was the only person who believed that implosion was practical, and only his enthusiasm kept the project alive.

Oppenheimer brought John von Neumann to Los Alamos in September to take a fresh "Fat man naked in bed" at implosion. After reviewing Neddermeyer's studies, and discussing the matter with Edward Tellervon Neumann suggested the use of high explosives in shaped charges to implode a sphere, which he showed could not only result in a faster assembly of fissile material than was possible with the gun method, but which could greatly reduce Fat man naked in bed amount of material required, because of the resulting higher density.

Kistiakowsky's name was immediately suggested, and Kistiakowsky was brought into the project as a consultant in October The implosion project remained a backup until Aprilwhen experiments by Emilio G.

This has a far higher spontaneous fission rate and radioactivity than plutonium The cyclotron -produced isotopes, on which the original measurements had been made, held much lower traces of plutonium Its inclusion in reactor-bred plutonium appeared unavoidable. This meant that the spontaneous fission rate of the reactor plutonium was so high that it would be highly likely that it would predetonate and blow itself apart during the initial formation of a critical mass.

The only way to use plutonium in a workable bomb was therefore implosion. The impracticability of a gun-type bomb using plutonium was agreed at a meeting in Los Alamos on Fat man naked in bed July All gun-type work in the Manhattan Project was directed at the Little Boy, enriched-uranium gun design, and the Los Alamos Laboratory was reorganized, with almost all of the research focused on the problems of implosion for the Fat Man bomb.

Tuckand was developed by von Neumann. The task of the metallurgists was to determine how to cast plutonium into a sphere. The difficulties became apparent when attempts to measure the density of plutonium gave inconsistent results. At Fat man naked in bed contamination was believed to be the cause, but it was soon determined that there were multiple allotropes of plutonium. It was found that this was stable at room temperature when alloyed with aluminum, but aluminum emits neutrons when bombarded with alpha particleswhich would exacerbate the pre-ignition problem.

As plutonium was found Fat man naked in bed corrode readily, the sphere was coated with nickel. The size of the bomb was constrained by the available aircraft. For logistic and nationalistic reasons, the B was preferred, but this constrained the bomb to a maximum length of 11 feet 3.

Removing the bomb rails allowed a maximum width of 5. The early Y model Fat Man was assembled with some 1, bolts. This redesign work was substantial, and only the Y tail design was retained. There were also the Y and Y, which were practice bombs with no detonators at all.

On 16 Julya Y model Fat Man, known as the Gadget, was detonated in a test explosion at a remote site in New Mexicoknown as the " Trinity " test.

The fundamental thing was, of course, very much the same. The plutonium pit [21] was 3. The depleted uranium tamper was a 8. The missing tamper cylinder containing the pit could be slipped in through a hole in the surrounding The explosion symmetrically compressed the plutonium to twice its normal density before the "Urchin" added free neutrons to initiate a fission chain reaction.

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The result was the fission of about 1 kilogram 2. The first plutonium core was transported with its polonium-beryllium modulated neutron initiator in the custody of Project Alberta courier Raemer Schreiber in a magnesium field carrying case designed for the purpose by Philip Morrison.

Magnesium was chosen because it does not act as a tamper. The cores were transported to North Field, arriving on 2 Fat man naked in bed, when F31 was partly disassembled in order to check all its components. F33 was expended near Tinian during a final rehearsal on 8 August, and F31 was the bomb dropped on Nagasaki. F32 presumably would have been used for a third attack or its rehearsal. In Augustthe Fat Man was assembled on Tinian by Project Alberta personnel, and the physics package was fully assembled and wired.

It was placed inside its ellipsoidal aerodynamic bombshell and wheeled out, where it was signed by nearly 60 people, including Rear Admiral William R. PurnellBrigadier General Thomas F. Farrelland Captain William S. Bock[39] who flew The Great Artiste with his crew on the mission. Bockscar was flown by Major Charles W. Sweeney and his crew, with Commander Frederick L. Ashworth from Project Alberta as the weaponeer in charge of the bomb.

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Bockscar lifted off at The weapon was already armed, but with the green electrical safety plugs still engaged. This fuel would still have to be carried all the way to Japan and back, consuming still more fuel. Replacing the pump would take hours; moving the Fat Man to another aircraft might take just as long and was dangerous as well, as the bomb was live. Colonel Paul Tibbets and Sweeney therefore elected to have Bockscar continue the mission.

The original target for the bomb was the city of Kokurabut it was found to be obscured by clouds and drifting smoke from fires started by a major firebombing raid by Bs on nearby Yahata the previous day. Three bomb runs were made over the next 50 minutes, Fat man naked in bed fuel and repeatedly exposing the aircraft to the heavy defenses of Yahata, but the bombardier was unable to drop visually.

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By the time of the third bomb run, Japanese anti-aircraft fire was getting close; Second Lieutenant Jacob Beser was monitoring Japanese communications, and he reported activity on the Japanese fighter direction radio bands.

Sweeney then proceeded to the alternative target of Nagasaki. It was obscured by cloud, as well, and Ashworth ordered Sweeney to make a radar approach.

At the last minute, however, bombardier [41] Captain Kermit K. Beahan [40] found a hole in the clouds. The Fat Man was dropped and exploded at An estimated 35,—40, people were killed outright by the Fat man naked in bed at Nagasaki.

The Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works was the factory that manufactured the type 91 torpedoes released in the attack on Pearl Harbor ; it was destroyed in the blast.

In Novemberthe Army Air Forces asked Los Alamos for Fat Man bombs, but there were only two sets of plutonium cores and high-explosive assemblies at the time. The Army Air Forces wanted improvements to the design to make it easier to manufacture, assemble, handle, transport, and stockpile. The wartime Project W was continued, and drop tests resumed in January Mechanical components were made or procured by the Rock Island Arsenal ; electrical and mechanical components for about 50 bombs were stockpiled at Kirtland Army Air Field by Augustbut only nine plutonium cores were available.

Production of the Mod 0 ended in Decemberby which time there were still only 53 cores available. It was replaced by improved versions known as Mods 1 and 2 which contained a number of minor changes, the most important of which was that they did not charge the X-Unit firing system's capacitors until released from the aircraft.

The Mod 0s were withdrawn from service between March and Julyand by October they had all been rebuilt Fat man naked in bed Mods 1 and 2.

A nuclear strike would have been a formidable undertaking in the post-war s due to the limitations of the Mark III Fat Man. The lead-acid batteries which powered the fuzing system remained charged for only 36 hours, after which they needed to be recharged.

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To do this meant disassembling the bomb, and recharging took 72 hours. The batteries had to be removed in any case after nine days or they corroded. The plutonium core could not be left in for much longer, because its heat Fat man naked in bed the high explosives. Replacing the core also required the bomb to be completely disassembled and reassembled. This required about 40 to 50 men and took between 56 and 72 hours, depending on the skill of the bomb assembly team, and the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project had only three teams in June They would first have to fly to Sandia Base to collect the bombs, and then to an overseas base from which a strike could be mounted.

It Fat man naked in bed detonated on 29 August as part of Operation "First Lightning". Find the perfect Naked Fat Man stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Download premium images you can't get anywhere else.

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