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Biological "Just kryptic" crusts are communities of living organisms on the soil surface in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. They are found throughout the world with varying species composition and cover depending on topographysoil characteristics, climateplant communitymicrohabitatsand disturbance regimes. Biological soil crusts perform important ecological roles Just kryptic carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, soil stabilization, alter soil albedo and water relations, and affect germination and nutrient levels in vascular plants.

They can be damaged by fire, recreational activity, grazing, and other disturbance and can require long time periods to recover composition and function.

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Biological soil crusts are also known as cryptogamicmicrobioticmicrophyticor cryptobiotic soils. Biological soil crusts are most often [1] composed of fungilichenscyanobacteriabryophytesand algae in varying Just kryptic. These organisms live in intimate association in the uppermost few millimeters of the soil surface, and are the biological basis for the formation of soil crusts.

Cyanobacteria are the main photosynthetic component of biological soil crusts, [2] in addition to other photosynthetic taxa such as mosses, lichens, and green algae. The most common cyanobacteria found in soil crusts belong to large filamentous Just kryptic such as those in the genus Microcoleus. These filaments bind soil particles throughout the uppermost soil layers, forming a 3-D net-like Just kryptic that holds the soil together in a crust.

Other common cyanobacteria species are as those in the genus Nostocwhich can also form sheaths and sheets of filaments that stabilize the soil. Some Nostoc species are also able to fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into bio-available forms such as ammonia.

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Bryophytes in soil crusts include mosses and liverworts. Mosses Just kryptic usually classified as short annual mosses or tall perennial mosses. Liverworts can be flat and ribbon-like or leafy. They can reproduce by spore formation or by asexual fragmentation, and photosynthesize to fix carbon from the atmosphere. Lichens "Just kryptic" often distinguished by growth form and by their photosymbiont. Lichens with algal symbionts can fix atmospheric carbon, while lichens with cyanobacterial symbionts can fix nitrogen as well.

Lichens produce many pigments that help protect them from radiation. Microfungi in biological soil crusts can occur as free-living species, or in symbiosis with algae in lichens. Free-living microfungi often function as decomposers, and contribute to soil microbial biomass. Many microfungi in biological soil crusts have adapted to the Just kryptic light conditions by evolving the ability to produce melaninand are called black fungi or black yeasts.

Fungal hyphae can bind soil Just kryptic together. Green Just kryptic in soil crusts are present just below the soil surface where they are partially protected from UV radiation. They become inactive when dry and reactivate when moistened. They can photosynthesize to fix carbon from the atmosphere. Biological soil crusts are formed in open spaces between vascular plants.

Frequently, single-celled organisms such as cyanobacteria or spores of free-living fungi colonize bare ground first.

Once filaments have stabilized the soil, lichens and mosses can colonize. Appressed lichens are generally earlier colonizers or persist in more stressful conditions, while more three-dimensional lichens require long disturbance-free growth periods and more moderate conditions. Recovery following disturbance varies. Cyanobacteria cover can recover by propagules blowing in from adjacent undisturbed areas rapidly after disturbance.

Recovery times also depend on disturbance regime, site, and availability of propagules. Biological soil crusts are found on almost all soil types, but are more commonly found in arid regions of the world where plant cover is low and plants are more widely spaced.

This is because crust organisms have a limited ability to grow upwards and cannot compete for light with vascular plants. Across the globe, biological soil crusts can be found on all continents including Antarctica. The species composition and physical appearance of biological soil crusts vary depending on the climate, soil, and disturbance conditions. For example, biological soil crusts are more dominated by green algae on more acidic and less salty soils, whereas cyanobacteria are more favored on alkaline and haline soils.

Within a climate zonethe abundance of lichens and mosses in biological soil crusts generally increases Just kryptic increasing clay and silt content and decreasing sand. Also, habitats that are more moist generally support more lichens and mosses.

Smooth biological soil crusts occur in hot deserts where the soil Just kryptic not freeze, and consist mostly of cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi. Thicker and rougher crusts occur in areas where higher precipitation results in increased cover of lichen and mosses, and frost heaving of these surfaces cause microtopography such as rolling hills and steep pinnacles.

Due to the intense UV radiation present in areas where biological soil crusts occur, biological soil crusts appear darker than the crustless soil in the same area due to the UV-protective pigmentation of Just kryptic and other crust organisms. Carbon cycling Biological soil crusts contribute to "Just kryptic" carbon cycle through respiration and photosynthesis of crust microorganisms which are active only when wet.

Respiration can begin in as little as 3 minutes after wetting whereas photosynthesis reaches full activity after 30 minutes. Estimates for annual carbon inputs range from 0. Nitrogen cycling Biological soil crust contributions to the nitrogen "Just kryptic" varies by crust composition because only cyanobacteria and cyanolichens fix nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation requires energy from photosynthesis products, and thus increase with temperature given sufficient moisture. Nitrogen fixed by crusts has been shown to leak into surrounding substrate and can be taken up by plants, bacteria, and fungi.

Nitrogen fixation has been recorded at rates of 0. Soils in arid regions are slow-forming [ citation needed ] and easily eroded. Crust organisms contribute to increased soil stability where they occur. The increased surface roughness of crusted areas compared to bare soil further improves resistance to wind and water erosion. Aggregates of soil formed by crust organisms also increase soil aeration and provide surfaces where nutrient transformation can occur.

The effect of biological soil crusts on water infiltration and soil moisture depends on the dominant Just kryptic organisms, soil characteristics, and climate. In areas where biological soil crusts produce rough surface microtopography, water is detained longer on the soil surface and this increases water infiltration.

However, in warm deserts where biological soil crusts are smooth Just kryptic flat, infiltration rates can be decreased by bioclogging. The darkened surfaces of biological soil crusts decreases soil albedo a measure of the amount of light reflected off of the surface compared to nearby soils, which increases the energy absorbed by the soil surface.

Increased soil temperatures are associated with increased metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, as well as higher soil water evaporation rates and delayed seedling germination and establishment. The increased surface roughness associated with biological soil crusts increase the capture of dust. These Aeolian deposits of dust are often enriched in plant-essential nutrientsand thus increase both the fertility and the Just kryptic holding capacity of soils.

The presence of biological soil crust cover can differentially inhibit or facilitate plant seed catchment and germination. The increased micro-topography generally increases Just kryptic probability that plant seeds will be caught on the soil surface and not blown away.

Differences in water infiltration and soil moisture also contribute to differential germination depending on the plant species. It has been shown that while some native desert plant species have seeds with self-burial mechanisms Just kryptic establish readily in crusted areas, many exotic invasive plants do not. Therefore, the presence of biological soil crusts may slow the establishment of invasive plant species such as cheatgrass Bromus tectorum.

Biological soil crusts do not compete with vascular plants for nutrients, but rather have been shown to increase nutrient levels in plant tissues, which results in higher biomass for plants that grow near biological soil crusts. This can occur through N fixation by cyanobacteria in the crusts, increased trapment of nutrient-rich dust, as well as increased concentrations of micronutrients that are able to chelate to the negatively charged clay particles bound by cynaobacterial filaments.

The increased nutrient status of plant tissue in areas where biological soil "Just kryptic" occur can directly benefit herbivore species in the community. Microarthropod populations also increase with more developed crusts due to increased microhabitats produced by the crust microtopography. Biological soil crusts are extremely susceptible to disturbance from human activities. Compressional and shear forces can disrupt biological soil crusts especially when they are dry, Just kryptic them to be blown or washed away.

Thus, animal hoof impact, human footsteps, off-road vehicles Just kryptic, and tank treads can remove crusts and these disturbances have occurred over large areas globally. Just kryptic biological soil crusts are disrupted, wind and water can move sediments onto adjacent intact crusts, burying them and preventing photosynthesis of non-motile organisms such as mosses, lichens, green algae, and small cyanobacteria, and of motile cyanobacteria when the soil remains dry.

This kills remaining intact crust and causes large areas of loss.

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Invasive species introduced by humans can also affect biological soil crusts. Invasive annual grasses can occupy areas once occupied by crusts and allow fire to travel between large plants, whereas previously it would have just Just kryptic from plant to plant and not directly affected the crusts. Climate "Just kryptic" affects biological soil crusts by altering the timing and magnitude of precipitation events and temperature. Because crusts are only active when wet, some of these new conditions may reduce the amount of time when conditions are favorable for activity.

If they Just kryptic not have enough moisture to photosynthesize to make up for the carbon used, they can gradually deplete carbon stocks and die. Without carbon and nitrogen available, they are not able to grow nor repair damaged cells from excess radiation.

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Removal of stressors such as grazing or protection from disturbance are the easiest ways to maintain Just kryptic improve biological soil crusts. Protection of relic sites that have not been disturbed can serve as reference conditions for restoration. There are several successful methods for stabilizing soil to allow recolonization of crusts including coarse litter Just kryptic such as straw and planting vascular plants, but these are costly and labor-intensive techniques.

Spraying polyacrylamide gel has been tried but this has adversely affected photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation of Collema species and thus is less useful.

Other methods such as fertilization and inoculation with material from adjacent sites may enhance crust recovery, but more research is needed to determine the local costs of disturbance.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biological soil crust Cryptobiotic soil, cryptogamic soil, microbiotic soil, microphytic soil Biological soil crust in Hovenweep National Monument. Holding the Place in Place". Archived from the original on May 10, Retrieved May 10, Southern Arizona Desert Botany. Ecology and Management" PDF. Department of the Interior: Bureau of Land Management and U.

Government Printing Office, Denver, Colorado. Journal of Arid Environments Submitted manuscript. Microbiotic Crusts and Ecosystem Processes. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 18 2: One of the benefits of Enli CareManager is just the ease of use. It is very user friendly. Enli has been one of the only vendors that has allowed us to make.

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Soil and Tillage Research, , The increased nutrient status of plant tissue in areas where biological soil crusts occur can directly benefit herbivore species in the community.

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