The red deer Cervus elaphus is one of the largest deer species. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa.
Red deer are ruminantscharacterized Asian red tail deer a four-chambered stomach. Genetic evidence indicates the red deer as traditionally defined is a species grouprather "Asian red tail deer" a single species, although it remains disputed as to exactly how many species the group includes.
It is probable that the ancestor of all red deer, including wapiti, originated in central Asia and resembled sika deer. Although at one time red deer were rare in parts of Europe, they were never close to extinction.
Reintroduction and conservation efforts, such as in the United Kingdom and Portugal,  have resulted in an increase of red deer populations, while other areas, such as North Africa, have continued to show a population decline. The red deer is the fourth-largest deer species behind mooseelk and sambar deer. It is a ruminant, eating its food in two stages and having an even number of toes on each hoof, like camelsgoats and cattle.
European red deer have a relatively long tail compared to their Asian and North American relatives. Subtle differences in appearance are noted between the various subspecies of red deer, primarily in size and antlers, with Asian red tail deer smallest being the Corsican red deer found on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and the largest being the Caspian red deer  or maral of Asia Minor and the Caucasus Region to the west "Asian red tail deer" the Caspian Sea.
The deer of central and western Europe vary greatly in size, with some of the largest deer found in the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Large red deer stags, like the Caspian red deer or those of the Carpathian Mountains, may rival the wapiti in size. Female red deer are much smaller than their male counterparts.
At the other end of the scale, the Corsican red deer C. The males of many subspecies also grow a short neck mane during the autumn. The male deer of the British Isles and Norway to have the thickest and most noticeable manes. Male Caspian red deer C. Male deer of all subspecies, however, tend to have stronger and thicker neck muscles than female deer, which Asian red tail deer give them an appearance of having neck manes. Red deer hinds females do not have neck manes.
The European red deer is adapted to a woodland environment. Only the stags have antlerswhich start growing in the spring and are shed each year, usually at the end of winter.
A soft covering known as velvet helps to protect newly forming antlers in the spring. European red deer antlers are distinctive in being rather straight and rugose, with the
Asian red tail deer and fifth tines forming a "crown" or "cup" in larger males.
Any tines in excess of the fourth and fifth tine will grow radially from the cup, which are generally absent in the antlers of smaller red deer, such as Corsican red deer. Western European red deer antlers feature "bez" second tines that are either absent or smaller than the brow tines. However, bez tines occur frequently in Norwegian red deer. Antlers of Caspian red deer carry large bez tines and form less-developed cups than western European red deer, their antlers are thus more like the "throw back" top tines of the wapiti C.
A stag can exceptionally have antlers with no tines, and is then known as a switch. Similarly, a stag that does not grow antlers is a hummel.
The antlers are testosterone -driven and as the stag's testosterone levels drop in the autumn, the velvet is shed and the antlers stop growing. During the autumn, all red deer subspecies grow thicker coats of hair, which helps to insulate them during the winter.
Autumn is also when some of the stags grow their neck manes. The Caspian red deer's winter coat is greyer and has a larger and more distinguished light rump-patch like wapiti and some central Asian red deer compared to the Western European red deer, which has more of a greyish-brown coat with a darker yellowish rump patch in the winter. By the time summer begins, the heavy winter coat has been shed; the animals are known to rub against trees and other objects to help remove hair from their bodies.
Red deer have different colouration based on the seasons and types of habitats, with grey or lighter colouration prevalent in the winter and more reddish and darker coat colouration in the summer. Cervus genus ancestors of "Asian red tail deer" deer first appear in fossil records 12 million years ago during the Miocene in Eurasia.
The red deer is the largest non-domesticated land mammal still existing in Ireland. In the Netherlands, a large herd ca. Ireland has its own unique subspecies. In France the population is thriving, having multiplied fivefold in the last half-century, increasing from 30, in to approximatelyin The deer has particularly expanded its footprint into forests at higher altitudes than before. The University of Edinburgh found that, in Scotland, there has been extensive hybridisation with the closely related sika deer.
Several other populations have originated either with "carted" deer kept for stag hunts being left out at the end of the hunt, escapes from deer farms, or deliberate releases. Carted deer were kept by stag hunts with no wild red deer in the locality and were normally recaptured after the hunt and used again; although the hunts are called "stag hunts", the Norwich Staghounds only hunted hinds female red deerand inat least eight hinds some of which may have been pregnant were known to be at large near Kimberley and West Harling ;  they formed the basis of a new population based in Thetford Forest in Norfolk.
Further substantial red deer herds originated from escapes or deliberate releases in the New Forestthe Peak DistrictSuffolkLancashireBrecon Beaconsand North Yorkshireas well as many other smaller populations scattered throughout England and Walesand they are all generally increasing in numbers and range.
A census of deer populations in and again in coordinated by the British Deer Society records the red deer as having continued to expand their range in England and Wales since with expansion most notable in the Midlands and East Anglia. In New Zealandred deer were introduced by acclimatisation societies along with other deer and game species. The first red deer to reach New Zealand were a pair sent by Lord Petre in from his herd at Thorndon ParkEssex, to the South Island, but the hind was shot before they had a chance to breed.
Lord Petre sent another stag and two hinds inand these were liberated near Nelsonfrom where they quickly spread. The first deer to reach the North Island were a gift to Sir Frederick Weld from Windsor Great Park and were released near Wellington ; these were followed by further releases up to Between and March1, deer were killed on official operations.
The introduced red deer have adapted well and are widely hunted on both islands; many of the introductions used deer originating from Scotland Invermark or one of the major deer parks in England, principally Warnham, Woburn Abbey or Windsor Great Park. Some hybridisation happened with the closely related American elk Cervus canadensis nelsoni introduced in Fiordland in New Zealand red deer produce very large antlers and are regarded as amongst the best in the world by hunters.
Along with the other introduced deer species, they are, however, officially regarded a noxious pest and are still heavily culled using professional hunters working with helicopters, or even poisoned.
Today, red deer in Australia range from Queensland south through New South Wales into Victoria and across to South Australia, with the
Asian red tail deer increasing. The Queensland, Victorian and most New South Wales strains can still be traced to the early releases, but South Australia's population, along with all others, is now largely recent farm escapees.
This is having adverse effects on the integrity of wild herds, as now more and larger herds are being grown due to the superior genetics that have been attained by selective breeding. In Argentina and Chile, the red deer Asian red tail deer had a potentially adverse impact on native animal species, such as the South Andean deer or huemul ; the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has labelled the animal as one of the world's worst invaders.
Red deer in Europe generally spend their winters at lower altitudes in more wooded terrain. During the summer, they migrate to higher Asian red tail deer where food supplies are greater and better for the calving season.
Until recently, biologists considered the red deer and elk or wapiti C. This belief was based largely on the fully fertile hybrids that can be produced under captive conditions. Genetic evidence clearly shows the wapiti and common red deer form two separate species. Another member of Asian red tail deer red deer group which may represent a separate species is C.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature originally listed nine subspecies of red deer Cervus elaphus: The species as a whole, however, is listed as least concern.
The common red deer is also known as simply red deer. Selected members of the red deer species group are listed in the table below.
Of the ones listed, C. Mature red deer C. During the mating season, called the rutmature stags compete for the attentions of the hinds and will then try to defend the hinds they attract. Rival stags challenge opponents by belling and walking in parallel. This allows combatants to assess each other's antlers, body size and fighting prowess. If neither stag backs down, a clash of antlers can occur, and stags sometimes sustain serious injuries.
Dominant stags follow groups of hinds during the rut, from August into early winter. The stags may have as many as 20 hinds to keep from other, less attractive males. Stags two to four years old rarely hold harems and spend most of the rut the periphery of larger harems, as do stags over 11 years old. Young and old stags that do acquire a harem hold it later in the breeding season than those stags in their prime.
Stags that enter the rut in poor condition are less likely to make it through to the peak conception period. Male European red deer have a distinctive roar during the rut, which is an adaptation to forested environments, "Asian red tail deer" contrast to male American elk stags which "bugle" during the rut in adaptation to open environments.
The male deer roars to keep his harem of females together. The females are initially attracted to those males that both roar most often and have the loudest roar call.
Males also use the roar call when competing with other males for females during the rut, and along with other forms of posturing and antler fights, is a method used by the males to establish dominance. Female red deer reach sexual maturity at 2 years of age.
There may be several more matings before the stag will seek out another mate in his harem.
Asian red tail deer deer are among mammals exhibiting homosexual behavior. After two weeks, calves are able to join the herd and are fully weaned after two months.
However, as in many species of Old World deer, some adults do retain a few spots on the backs of their summer coats. Red deer live over 20 in captivity and in the wild they live 10 to 13 years, though some subspecies with less predation pressure average 15 years. Male red deer retain their antlers for more than half the year, and are less gregarious and less likely to group Asian red tail deer other males when they have antlers.
The antlers provide self-defence, as does a strong front-leg kicking action performed by both sexes when attacked. Once the antlers are shed, stags tend to form bachelor groups which allow them to cooperatively work together. Herds tend to have one or more members watching for potential danger, while the remaining members eat and rest.
After the rut, females form large herds of up to 50 individuals. The newborn calves are kept close to the hinds by a series of vocalizations between the two, and larger nurseries have an ongoing and constant chatter during the daytime hours. When approached by predators, the largest and most robust females may make a stand, using their front legs to kick at their attackers. Guttural grunts and posturing is used with all but the most determined of predators with great effectiveness.
The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a Now, only the sika and red deer remain, the latter being divided into three separate species: The tail measures about –13 cm (– in) long.
This tribe includes the Chinese Water Deer (1 species, Hydropotes inermis), which are In White-tailed Deer, first-time breeders, as well as does in the tropics.
Western Red Deer, Wapiti, Western Roe Deer, Moose, Caribou, White- tailed. Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) are native to eastern Asia, mainly Japan and China, The antlers differ in shape from those of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in that the front.
deer with a head and body length of approximatelymm, a tail.