A tiny hatchet fish was among the variety of marine life captured during more than net tows. Originally published online March 9, When the ground in Japan started shaking on March 11,the Japanese, who are well accustomed to earthquakes, knew this time was different.
But this time the trembling continued for six minutes. But the last time something remotely similar had happened was more than 1, years ago and, even in a country that prides itself on its shared cultural memory of the distant past, that event had been largely forgotten. Since that time, much has changed. People and development have sprung up along the coast, along with a string of nuclear reactors. Everything, it seemed, had changed in the intervening millennium—except the ocean.
Compared with other large earthquakes in recent memory, the magnitude 9. The temblors off Chile in magnitude 8. In Japan, the combination of natural forces and greater human presence created a domino-like sequence of events, from earthquake to tsunami to the release of radiation from the mangled remains of the nuclear power plant near Fukushima. The Tohoku earthquake also triggered a cascade of scientific dominoes, as geologists, geophysicists, chemists, modelers, physical oceanographers, and marine biologists Aiken dating site video 2018 japanese tsunami images wave to understand the causes and consequences of the earthquake.
The undersea fault that ruptured Aiken dating site video 2018 japanese tsunami images wave March 11 extends north-south about miles, roughly parallel to the northeast coast of Japan. It is a mega-thrust fault in the Japan Trench, where the massive Pacific Plate pushes westward, and beneath, the continental Eurasian Plate.
Where the two tectonic plates grind against one another, gargantuan stress builds over time in the seafloor crust. Hundreds of large and small earthquakes dot the fault each year as stress exceeds the breaking point of rocks and releases. As a result, the Japanese have made living with seismic activity part of their daily life and national culture. Each year, schools and businesses across the country mark Disaster Prevention Day on Sept.
Building codes are laden with requirements intended to prevent high-rise buildings from collapsing during violent shaking. Even the iconic bullet train is connected to a network of seismic sensors designed to automatically stop any moving train before shaking from a large offshore earthquake can reach shore.
In Tokyo, less than miles away, frightened office workers safely evacuated or rode out the six-minute quake as buildings swayed, but did not fall.
On the busy railway corridor running north of Tokyo, trains slowed and stopped with very few derailments. In fact, the earthquake produced surprisingly little damage, despite the fact that national hazard maps for the region, based on data only from the last few hundred years, directed officials to prepare for a maximum magnitude of 8.
The Japanese government and scientific community have also encouraged a culture in which scientists share their data with colleagues elsewhere around the world, especially after the magnitude 6. When Miyazaki and McGuire sat together and looked at the data, they discovered to their surprise that after the earthquake, portions of the Japanese island of Honshu had moved 8 meters [26 feet] to the east.
That so much energy was released from shallow portions of the fault was another surprise for McGuire and other seismologists. The water-filled sediment overlying the fault, instead of absorbing seismic energy, broke and continued breaking, all the way to the surface of the seafloor in places. Had the earthquake occurred and nothing more, the Japanese people would have mourned their dead and counted themselves relatively lucky.
Disaster officials would have realized their mistake and begun preparing for the possibility of larger earthquakes in the future. But the quake turned out to be just the beginning. When the mega-thrust fault broke, it released the wedged-in Eurasian Plate overriding the Pacific Plate.
The plate sprang eastward and upward, propelling huge amounts of "Aiken dating site video 2018 japanese tsunami images wave" upward, raising the sea level over the fault in an instant.
The pulse of water raced away from the epicenter, spreading rapidly in all directions in the form of a complex ripple as deep as the ocean. In open water, that ripple would have been barely noticeable.
When it reached the continental shelf and then the shallower coastal waters around Japan, however, the wave reared up, exposing its full size, and swept ashore, in some places for miles. When they saw the news that day, Changsheng Chen and Robert Beardsley, like most people, were amazed by the power of the wave. But they also took a professional interest in the tsunami and its path of destruction. His advisor was Beardsley, and the two have collaborated ever since.
Inhe and Beardsley developed the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model FVCOMa somewhat unorthodox model of global ocean circulation that can recreate currents and patterns in complex environments such as the coastal ocean and estuaries. To understand how FVCOM differs from standard models requires physics and mathematics beyond many readers. Suffice it to say that most models divide the ocean into a rigid horizontal grid of squares and then calculate changes in surface elevation, currents, temperature, salinity, density, and other properties driven by surface forces such as wind and the horizontal transfer of mass, momentum, and energy among the squares.
FVCOM, however, divides the marine realm into a horizontal grid of triangles of varying shapes and sizes. The difference is more than aesthetic. The triangles permit Chen to make on-the-fly changes in the resolution of particular locations. Using the model, he can, for example, produce highly detailed simulations of ocean circulation in a focused region of the ocean such as near the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant.
After the tsunami struck, many were surprised by the extent of inundation along the coastline. Aiken dating site video 2018 japanese tsunami images wave and others quickly catalogued the extent of the flooding and produced detailed measurements of the flooded coast. With this data, FVCOM could potentially recreate the wave to show just how the wave formed, approached, and ultimately inundated the coast.
Chen and Beardsley already had high-resolution data for winds, tides, currents, temperature, salinity and other ocean conditions in the region where the tsunami hit. But the earthquake had fundamentally and instantly changed sections of the Japanese coastline.
Not only had the coastline moved a substantial distance to the east, but some places had subsided as much as 2 meters [6. Jian Lin has been studying large earthquakes since the s, including recent ones in Algeria, Sumatra, China, Haiti, and Chile. By studying the pattern of their movement, Lin and colleagues were able to approximate how the fault ruptured and how much the surrounding crust actually changed shape.
This helped him to determine locations on neighboring parts of the fault, north and south of the March 11 rupture zone, where stress had shifted and increased dramatically, along with the likelihood of future earthquakes. The southern portion is notable for the fact that it has ruptured before—in a large earthquake on the segment laid waste to Edo, today known as Tokyo. Ten days after the earthquake, Chen contacted Lin looking for data on how much the height the seafloor had changed.
He could convert these data into sea surface changes, which would serve as a starting point for FVCOM to model the formation and spread of the tsunami. Lin produced several possible scenarios, from which the team created a model run that agreed with both the geologic and the tsunami inundation record.
Their work provided the first scientific visualization of the waves that slammed into the coast and the reactors at Fukushima.
Almost exactly 25 years before the Tohoku earthquake, Ken Buesseler was a young marine chemist with a newly minted Ph. His thesis focused on the slight but measurable fingerprint of natural and manmade radiation in
Aiken dating site video 2018 japanese tsunami images wave Atlantic Ocean.
For the next two decades, Buesseler refined techniques to measure the types and amount of radioactive isotopes that Chernobyl and other events fed into the ocean. Because each radioactive isotope has a unique half-life the time it takes for half of the atoms of a particular isotope to decayas well as byproducts of that decay, Buesseler and others use these substances to trace currents and study how water masses mix across the depth and breadth of entire ocean basins. With only one narrow connection to the Mediterranean through the Bosporus Strait, it is barely a part of the global ocean system.
Over his career, Buesseler turned his attention to other scientific problems, but when conditions at the tsunami-damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant began to spin out of control, he quickly realized his expertise would be needed once again.
A series of gas explosions in the buildings housing the reactors destroyed the facility beyond repair, and officials were reduced to pumping tons of water on the reactors to keep them from catastrophically overheating. Much of that water became contaminated with radionuclides and had only one place to go—into the nearby ocean.
Buesseler immediately set about trying to get any information he could about
Aiken dating site video 2018 japanese tsunami images wave much and what sorts of radioactive isotopes were being pumped into the ocean. TEPCO, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, which operated the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was releasing some data, including the flow of water from discharge canals at the plant, and he had limited offshore measurements coming in from Japanese colleagues.
But Buesseler knew that larger questions about how the radiation was mixing into the ocean or getting into the marine food chain could be answered only with a systematic look at how specific radionuclides were accumulating and moving in the ocean—from as close as he could get to the reactors and before they dispersed far offshore.
Buesseler began to search for sources of funding, colleagues, and ships of opportunity to mount a major research cruise to make these critical measurements. On June 6, the ship left Yokohama with a comprehensive sampling plan and a full science party of 17 people from eight institutions, but still without the crucial final permission to at the edge of the mile exclusion zone around the reactors. That finally came from the U.
Coast Guard on June 8, while the ship was en route to the first sampling station. The group also collected and packaged water samples for other lab groups in other countries that would eventually be able to test the water for more than 20 different radioactive isotopes.
For two weeks, the KOK sailed a saw-tooth course beginning miles offshore, crossing the powerful Kuroshio Current that flows from the coast of Japan into the Pacific. The final leg of the cruise began within sight of the reactor complex at Fukushima on a clear, sunny day.
He released two dozen surface drifters into the ocean during the cruise. These instruments deploy a parachute-like drogue just below the surface and transmit their locations back to shore while they move with ocean currents. Jayne used the data to map the strength and direction of branches and eddies in the current for months afterward.
Initial results have shown that radionuclides from the reactors mixed quickly into Aiken dating site video 2018 japanese tsunami images wave ocean and were diluted to levels of naturally occurring radiation within a few tens of miles of the coast.
In addition, the Kuroshio appeared to act as both a highway and a barrier, carrying much of the radiation quickly away from shore while also largely preventing it from spreading south.
The eddy trapped radiation in it and resulted in the highest levels of radioactivity detected on the cruise. For years to come, similar measurements for radionuclides released from Fukushima will help oceanographers like Jayne trace currents and mixing throughout the Pacific Ocean. The scientists found that, even when sampling within sight of the nuclear power plants, levels of cesium and cesium, two primary products of nuclear fission, were higher than normal, but still below what is considered of concern for exposure to humans.
Levels were also well below thresholds of concern to the small fish and plankton, even if those were consumed by humans. Several other groups have since confirmed the findings, but these measurements have also shown disturbing new trends.
For one, levels of radioactivity in fish are not decreasing, and there appear to be hot spots of radioactivity on the seafloor that are not well mapped. There is also still little agreement on exactly how much radioactivity was released, where it is now, where it might end up in the future, and most importantly what the real risks are to human and marine life.
With all their knowledge of the ocean and what caused the cascade of events that resulted in 20, dead or missing and damage that will not soon be repaired for forgotten, another fundamental question remains: Were events beginning on March 11 avoidable?
Nothing could have prevented the earthquake or the ensuing tsunami. But with greater knowledge of how the offshore mega-thrust fault works—and the earthquakes and tsunamis it has been capable of generating in the past—perhaps preparations along the coast would have been more extensive. Perhaps the nuclear power plant at Fukushima might have been reconfigured to lessen or prevent the damage that resulted. Such knowledge could also inform preparations on the other side of the Pacific near another mega-thrust fault immediately off the coasts of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia.
The Aiken dating site video 2018 japanese tsunami images wave there is eerily similar to what happened in Japan in several ways. As a result, many people believe the potential risk is vastly underestimated. The Cascadia Trench off the Pacific Northwest, however, lacks the instrumental network the Japanese have installed in the Japan Trench.
In February, McGuire and several colleagues received funding from the W. Most of these accelerograms have recorded the initial P-wave. .
of the post's date, time, geolocation, image, post ID, username and ID, caption, and . . Magnitude Estimation for the Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Based on to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been. The Tohoku-Oki struck on March 11, triggering a tsunami which Dating & Relationships has converted the earthquake's seismic waves into audio files.
of Japan between Fukushima (the nuclear reactor site) and Tokyo. Your browser does not currently recognize any of the video formats available.
4 Online Dating Sites that Actually Work for FreeTop US Dating Sites More Than Killed After Major Earthquake And Tsunami Hit Indonesia · Waves as high as 18 feet smashed onshore at dusk, sweeping Kristen Aiken HuffPost Video Copyright © The Huffington Post Australia Pty Ltd.
A tiny hatchet fish was among the variety of pelagic life captured all along more than grid tows. Originally published online March 9, When the ground in Japan started shaking on March 11, Obsolete, the Japanese, who are well familiar to earthquakes, knew this time was different. But that time the trembling continued for six minutes.
But the last time something remotely similar had happened was more than 1, years ago and, straightforward in a nation that prides itself on its shared cultural memory of the distant recent, that event had been largely forgotten. Since that dated, much has changed. People and evolvement have sprung up along the coastline, along with a string of atomic reactors.
Everything, it seemed, had changed in the intervening millennium—except the profusion. Compared with other large earthquakes in recent memory, the magnitude 9. The temblors off Chile in magnitude 8. In Japan, the combination of easy forces and greater human presence erected a domino-like organization of events, from earthquake to tsunami to the launch of radiation from the mangled remains of the atomic power plant Fukushima.
Lessons from the 2018...
Chen and Beardsley already had high-resolution data for winds, tides, currents, temperature, salinity and other ocean conditions in the region where the tsunami hit.
For the next two decades, Buesseler refined techniques to measure the types and amount of radioactive isotopes that Chernobyl and other events fed into the ocean. Buesseler began to search for sources of funding, colleagues, and ships of opportunity to mount a major research cruise to make these critical measurements. Levels were also well below thresholds of concern to the small fish and plankton, even if those were consumed by humans.
In open water, that ripple would have been barely noticeable. TEPCO, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, which operated the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was releasing some data, including the flow of water from discharge canals at the plant, and he had limited offshore measurements coming in from Japanese colleagues.
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